澳门新葡11599Scrum Practice in Project Management

会议发言摘要:Abstracts 1. Arlene K. Fleming Cultural Heritage
Management: An Integral Aspect of Development Infrastructure development
is often seen as a threat to cultural heritage. However, such
development provides a valuable opportunity to discover, identify,
document, conserve and manage heritage resources. The process of
Environmental Impact Assessment , now established throughout the world,
recognizes the necessity for, and provides the vehicle to identify and
manage cultural heritage resources in a timely and constructive manner
as part of infrastructure development. The EIA process calls for
consultation with local communities affected by development projects as
well as with academic and other stakeholders. National governments,
international financial institutions, many commercial lenders, and even
some private corporations now require that cultural heritage be
respected in the development process by inclusion in EIA and in the
environmental management plans that result from project-specific EIAs.
Moreover, the inclusion of cultural heritage in requirements for
Strategic Environmental Assessment provides opportunities for
participation by heritage proponents in broader and longer range
planning. Since the inception of EIA, in the early 1970s, cultural
heritage has been recognized as one of its three basic components, along
with biophysical and social factors, although it is by far the weakest.
The World Bank, among international finance institutions, has taken the
lead in providing a policy buttressed by guidance and training materials
designed to strengthen the cultural heritage component of EIA. These
materials are now available in English, Chinese, French, Spanish and
Arabic. An essential next step in the process is the preparation of
cultural heritage authorities and experts, including archaeologists, to
participate in the development process with the objective of realizing
the opportunities presented by infrastructure development for cultural
heritage identification and management.

澳门新葡11599,ps: 这是我和同事曾理在hp写的命题作文,E文不好,请见谅。

Introduction

  • Threat: any potential adverse occurrence or unwanted event, to be
    injurious to either AIS or organization

  • Exposure / impact of the threat: potential dollar loss if a
    particular threat comes true

  • Likelihood: probability to happen

  • Internal control: the process by the board of directors / management
    / those under their direction, to provide reasonable assurance of a
    number of goals

  • Preventive controls: deter before problems

  • Detective controls: discover as soon as problems

  • Corrective controls: remedy after problems discovered

  • Levers of control: to reconcile the conflict between creativity and
    controls

  1. Belief system: communicates company core values to employees, and
    inspire them to live by them
  2. Boundary system: helps employees act ethically by setting forbidding
    rules
  3. Diagnostic system: measures company process by comparing actual to
    planned
  4. Interactive control system: helps top managers with high level
    activities, that demand frequent and regular attention

文化遗产管理:开发建设的一部分
基建开发通常被视为文化遗产保护的威胁。然而,这些建设行为却也可能为文化遗产资源的发现、确认、记录、保护以及管理处置提供难得的机会。环境影响评估在全世界范围内都很常见,它不仅能对建设中遇到的遗产资源的重要性进行及时的辨识,还能够为基建过程中遇到的遗产资源的确认与处置提供及时而有效的策略,并将遗产的确认与处置行为纳入基建过程之中。环境影响评估,不仅需要学者专家和其他利益相关人群的参与,更需要将受开发项目影响的“当地人”拉到被咨询的队伍中来。
国家政府、国际财经组织、商务赞助人甚至是很多私人公司,都会要求将EIA评估和环境整治等手段纳入到开发项目当中。不仅如此,策略性环境评估明确要求在环境整治中应广泛且长期地关注遗产因素。EIA自20世纪70年代开始出现,文化遗产、生物、社会被看做是该项评估的三大环境因素,但文化遗产资源在其中还是受重视程度最低的。在众多的财经机构中,世界银行通过制定很多项目导则和培训材料的方式,对强化EIA中文化遗产评估内容起到了引领的作用。现在这些材料不仅有英文版本,而且还有中文、法文、西班牙文和阿拉伯文等语种的版本。在实践中,除了EIA之外,下一个重要的环节就是确立文化遗产决策部门、邀请专家,使其参与到基建开发项目的具体过程之中,在项目进展过程中展开对文化遗产的确认和处置管理工作。

Abstract

ERM (Enterprise risk management – integrated framework)

  • Objectives:
  • Provide reasonable assurance to achieve goals and minimize problems
  • Achieve financial & performance targets
  • Assess risks continuously, and identify instructions and resources
    against risks
  • Avoid adverse publicity and disreputes
  • Basic principles:
  • Companies are formed to create value for owners
  • Company management must decide how much uncertainty can be acepted
  • Uncertainty results in risk or opportunity
  • ERM framework is to help management manage uncertainty, and risk &
    opportunity, to build or preserve value
  • Components
  1. Internal environment
  2. Objective setting
  3. Event identification
  4. Risk assessment
  5. Risk response
  6. Control activities
  7. Information & communication
  8. Monitoring
  1. George S. Smith (gsmith4790@comcast.net) Assessing Site
    Significance, Evaluating Impact, and Developing a Mitigation Plan Based
    on federal and state legal requirements, a multi-year cultural resource
    study (1979-1985) was undertaken by the University of Alaska Museum as
    part of the feasibility studies for the Susitna Hydroelectric Project.
    The hydroelectric project, located in interior Alaska 150 miles north of
    Anchorage, was designed to provide electric power to south central
    Alaska. Although a decision was made not to proceed with construction,
    the two proposed dams would have impounded an area of some 55,000
    surface acres (71 square miles; 183.9 square kilometers), encompassing
    some 60 linear miles (96.6 kilometers) of the Middle Susitna River. Five
    field seasons resulted in the survey and testing of 182 survey locales
    and documentation of 270 prehistoric and historic sites, ranging in age
    from early Holocene to historic times. Assessment of site significance,
    impact of the hydroelectric project on cultural resources, and the
    application of these data to the development of a mitigation plan are
    discussed.

Scrum is an iterative incremental process of Software development
commonly used with Agile Software Development. Especially, Scrum will
help us to manage the project more efficiently because it is an adaptive
process. However, applying the Scrum Methodology should depend on the
different situation during the process of project development. It’s a
big issue to solve. This article gives an example to elaborate how to
manage the project with Scrum.

The Internal Environment (most important part of ERM)

  1. Management’s philosophy, operating style, and risk appetite
  2. The board of directors
  • Oversee management & scrutinize its plans, performance,
    andactivities
  • Approve company stretegy
  • Review financial results
  • Annually review security policy
  • Interact with internal & external auditors
    • Audit committee: non-employee independent directors
  1. Commitment to integrity, ethical values, and competence
  • To create an organization culture that stresses integrity and
    commitment of ethical values and competence

    • To endorse integrity as a basic operating principle, teach &
      require
    • To reward and encourage honesty, give verbal label to honest and
      dishonest behavior
    • To develop clear policies explicitly describe honest and
      dishonest behavior
    • To require employees to report dishonest, illegal, or unethical
      acts, discipline who not
    • To make a commitment to competence by competent employees
  1. Organizational structure
  • Lines of authority, responsibility, and reporting
  • Overall framework for planning, directing, executing, controlling &
    monitoring operations
  1. Methods of assigning authority and responsibility
  • To make sure employees understand entity’s objectives, assign
    authority & responsibility for business objectives to specific
    departments and individuals, encourage them to use initiative to
    solve problem, then hold them accountable for achieving objectives
  1. Human resource standards
  • Employees can be both the greatest control strength and weakness
  1. External influences

遗址重要性与各类影响评估及压力缓解策略
在联邦和州立法律要求的基础上,阿拉斯加大学博物馆在1979至1985年间实施了一个文化资源研究项目,其主要目标是评估苏希纳特水电工程的可行性。该项水电工程的实施地点位于安克雷奇以北150英里的阿拉斯加内陆地区。这个水电站的建设主要是为了向其以南的阿拉斯加中部地区输送电力。虽然最后该项建设工程已被中止,但已列入计划的两处水坝还是会侵占约合183.9平方公里的区域,其中包含苏希纳特河中游约96.6公里的河道范围。连续五个的田野季中,调查人员勘查了182个地点,记录了270个史前和历史时期遗址(年代上始于全新世。在本文中,我们将讨论这些遗址的重要性、水电项目对文化资源的影响以及如何利用这些数据制定压力缓解方案等问题。

Introduction

Objective Setting

  • Precedes the later six
  • Cooperate vision / mission: why the company exists and that it hopes
    to achieve
  • Strategic objectives: supporting mission, intended to create
    shareholder value
  • Operator objectives: a product of management preferences, judgments,
    and style, varying among entities
  • Compliance & reporting objectives: many imposed by external entities

……

Software development is a complex endeavor. So the most difficult
problem is how to handle the complexity through by the science of
project management. Many scientists and software engineers raised a
great number of methodologies for project management such as Waterfall,
UP and Agile. In contrast to the heavy methodologies including Waterfall
and UP, Agile is enough flexible to embrace the change, more light to be
mastered by project team members, and more focuses on the communication
and release of the usable software rapidly. Agile methodologies include
eXtreme Programming, Scrum, Feature Driven Development and Crystal
etc.

Event Identification

  • Event: incident or occurrence emanating from internal or external
    sources to affect strategy or objectives

摘要阅读

Scrum was raised by Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka in 1986. The
skeleton is shown in Figure 1.

Risk Assessment & Response

  • Inherent / residual risk: unable / able to avoid before
  • Estimate likelihood and impact (with softwares)
  • Identify controls (to protect from each event)
  • Estimate costs & benefits & determine cost/benefit effectiveness
  • Implement control or avoid, share, or accept the risk

 

Control Activities

  • Policies, procedures & rules to provide reasonable assurance for
    objectives and anti-risk
  • Must also ensure compliance & enforcement
  • Segregation of duties: no single employee given too much
    responsibility
  • Segregation of accounting duties: authorization, recording, custody
  • Project development & acquisition controls: to have a formal,
    appropriate & proven methodology to govern
  • Change management: making sure changes do not harm reliability,
    security, confidentiality, integrity & availability

澳门新葡11599 1

Information & Communication

Figure 1

Monitoring

  1. Perform ERM evaluations
  2. Implement effective supervision
  3. Use responsibility accounting
  4. Monitor system activities

The lower circle represents an iteration of development activities that
occur one after another. In Scrum, it was called Sprint. Each Sprint is
an iteration of 30 consecutive calendar days. The output of each sprint
is an increment of product. The upper circle represents the daily
inspection that occurs during the sprint, in which the individual team
members meet to inspect each others’ activities and make appropriate
adaptations.

There are three roles in Scrum including ScrumMaster, Product Owner and
Team. The ScrumMaster is responsible for the Scrum process, for teaching
Scrum to everyone involved in the project, for implementing Scrum and
ensuring that everyone follows Scrum rules and practices. The Product
Owner is responsible for representing the interest of stakeholders and
creating the project’s initial overall requirement which was called the
Product Backlog, for using the Product Backlog to ensure that the most
valuable functionality is produces first and built upon. The team is
responsible for developing functionality. Teams are self-managing,
self-organizing, and cross-functional, and they are responsible for
figuring out how to return Product Backlog into an increment of
functionality within an iteration and managing their own work to do
so.

Problem Statement

Without doubt, Scrum is one of most popular agile methodologies now. It,
however, is not easy to apply it to project management. Considering
about the following situations please:

  1. If the culture of your organization is contradictious with Scrum, and
    your leader always interrupts you during the process of project
    development, what should you do?
  2. If your team members are not familiar with Scrum, and they don’t
    understand the heart and rules of Scrum, what should you do?
  3. Furthermore if your team members didn’t master the basic skills of
    Agile developing such as pair programming, Test Driven Development etc,
    what should you do?
  4. If your customers always change their requirement, they are not clear
    what they want even, what should you do?

Our Solution

In fact, we can’t find out the “Silver Bullet” to solve these problems.
We know Scrum is an adaptive process. Scrum makes many rules which
should be followed, but not hidebound. It’s agile and flexible. It
allows us to adjust the way to achieve the goal of project.

The answer to the first question is operating within the culture of the
organization. Don’t fight against the culture of your company. If you
are ScrumMaster, you’d better walk a fine line between the
organization’s need to make changes as quickly as possible and its
limited tolerance for change. You can adopt Scrum by starting small. At
the same time, you should try your best to persuade your leader to
support you. Sometimes your leader will build the bridge between the
agile world and non-agile for you. Of course, it needs change, but these
changes must be culturally acceptable. If not, you must acquiesce. The
ScrumMaster is a sheepdog of the team, and his job is to protect the
team from impediments during the Sprint. Remember that the precondition
of which everything is going on well is that the sheepdog cannot be
dead. After all, Scrum is the art of the possible.

Right, we hope our team members are all software craftsman so that
everything is Ok. Unfortunately, the real world is not as good as that
we expect. In fact, the situation in which most of team members are all
apprentices is more common. It is true that it is difficult to hire the
experienced software engineer in this industry. So the problem we must
solve is how to train them. We should draw up a training plan. Before
it, we must understand the skill set of everybody. We need to assign the
mentors to the fresh guys. Of course, the best way of training is
practice. We should assign the task to them according to their ability.
At the same time, we have to add the task duration because they are not
familiar with the related skills. Besides, Pair programming is a good
way to handle it.

The great character of Scrum is enough flexible to embrace the change.
Scrum is an iterative and incremental process. The iteration is very
short (30 days) so that we can change our plan in time. The incremental
development will provide the good policy to submit the release rapidly.
The increment product can give our customers confidence. And the
customers can understand the difference between what they want and what
we provide though by the running software. Scrum emphasis on the
communication between the team and customers. Product Owner of Scrum is
responsible for communicating with the customers and creating the
product backlog. In case the customers changed their requirements, the
Product Owner will discuss with ScrumMaster and Team. If the change is
acceptable, it is added into the product backlog. If the change is
within the sprint which the team is developing, the sprint has to halt,
and re-open the new sprint. Beside, the daily scrum will help each team
member understand the current statue of the project, and the sprint
review meeting will show the result of the sprint to the customers in
order to get the feedback from the customers, the sprint retrospection
meeting will prompt the Scrum process framework and practices.

Evidence that the Solution Works

Now we complete the first sprint of the project on time. In a month, we
went through the whole lifecycle of the software development from the
requirement analysis to designing, coding and testing. Each member is
familiar with the Scrum gradually. Everything is going on well such as
Daily Scrum, Team Work and Sprint Development. In the end of this
sprint, we submit the increment product to our customers and get the
feedback from the customers. The most important achievement is that our
customers approve our approach to develop the product.

Competitive Approaches

We don’t follow the rule of Agile Methodology strictly. For instance,
most of team members are accustomed to the TDD (Test Driven
Development), so we adopt the traditional way to design and develop the
software such as Use Case Driven Development instead of TDD. But we
require everybody must write the test case for classes and components.
We organize the pair programming group to prompt each other.

Because our customers are off-site, so we require our Product Owner must
be in-site and cooperate with them in full time. We create the
communication schedule for the customers to understand the customers’
requirement. The Product Owner is empowered to handle everything with
requirement.

Especially, the ScrumMaster of our project protects the team from the
rest of the non-agile world. We get the enough resources and backup. For
example, we have our own agile coach to direct how to apply the Scrum to
our project. He can help us to solve the key problem when we are
confused of Scrum Methodology.

Current Status

The project is going on well. The first sprint is very successful. Team
members are all confidence. They regard the Scrum as the effective and
enjoyable process. The customers are satisfied with our process. Most of
risks had already solved because we emphasis on them and add them as the
tasks into the sprint backlog.

Next Steps

Next month, we are going to hold the Sprint retrospective meeting to
find out the existed problems in the first sprint. Then we will create
the backlog for next sprint. In this sprint, we will develop the most
important domain module and let it workable.

Conclusions

Scrum is an excellent agile methodology to release the software product
rapidly and correctly. It gives all team members the new management
responsibilities. The process of the project management is visible and
controllable. The ScrumMaster and Product Owner don’t need to write the
redundant documents and draw up the unrealistic project plan. The team
members become more active due to self-organizing and self-managing.

References

  1. Agile Project Management with Scrum, Ken Schwaber
  2. Software Craftsmanship, Pete McBreen
  3. Applying UML And Patterns, Craig Larman

Co-author: Zeng Li, Zhang Yi

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